What Was the Gender Agreement

It may be difficult for future research to better characterize the nature of inconsistency in the application of a rule depending on the context. For example, it would be interesting to explore the limits of generalizing the male sex to several female speakers. Can the online activation of false male matches (or the possibility of false male correspondence in an offline task) be modulated by the absolute number of female speakers or by the combination of natural and grammatical gender? For example, one could hypothesize that if speakers have both a grammatical and natural feminine gender (e.B. la nonna e la zia “the grandmother and the aunt”), people are less inclined to accept the masculine agreement than if the speakers are only grammatically marked (e.B. la bottiglia e la tazza `la bouteille: fem and cup:fem`). This prediction is confirmed by Serbian/Croat/Bosnian data (e.B. Wechsler & Zlatić, ۲۰۰۰; ۲۰۰۳). In this language, the gender dissolution rule would be similar to Italian, except that Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian has a three-way gender system (male/female/neutral). The feminine is limited in case all the names in a conjunction are feminine, while the masculine must be used in all other cases. However, closer analysis has revealed that the masculine form can be used even if all the names in a conjunction are feminine, unless they are also marked for the natural sex (Corbett, 1991: 299-303).

If the nouns are marked for the woman both grammatically and semantically, the masculine cannot be used by default. The grammatical gender of a noun does not always correspond to its natural gender. An example of this is the German word Mädchen; This is derived from maid “girl”, renamed “girl” with the diminutive suffix -chen, and this suffix always makes the name grammatically sterilized. Therefore, the grammatical sex of girls is neutrum, although its natural sex is female (since it refers to a female person). Meunier, F., Seigneuric, A., and Spinelli, E. (2008). The gender effect of the morpheme. J.

Mem. Long. 58, 88–۹۹. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.005 The natural sex of a noun, pronoun or noun is a gender to which it should belong because of the relevant attributes of its speaker. Although grammatical gender may correspond to natural gender, it is not necessary. Discrepancies were also observed in the simple name of the name. No sex- or determinant-related congruence effects were observed in the simple naming of names in Dutch (La Heij et al., 1998; Starreveld and La Heij, 2004). In a translation task from Greek (L1) to German (L2), the sex congruence effect was observed in nominal expressions only when the target expression required a gender match (Salamoura and Williams, 2007), although it is assumed that gender information in L2 is recalculated during production and not stored as a fixed line in L1 (Bordag and Pechmann, 2007). In contrast, Cubelli et al. (2005) observed the grammatical interference effect of gender in the production of Italian nude nouns, even if grammatical gender is not necessary to create the goal (but see also Finocchiaro et al., 2011).

The gender congruence effect of the simple nominal denomination was also found in Konso in a study by Tsegaye et al. (2013), Tsegaye (2017), Tsegaye et al. (unpublished) and in Czech, where the congruence effect with a comparable characteristic, i.e. the declination class (Bordag and Pechmann, 2009), was shown. Cubelli et al. (2005) came to the conclusion that grammatical gender is selected even in the simple production of nouns. The grammatical effect of gender was observed both when the correspondence is transparent from gender to the end (i.e. -a for woman and -o for man) and when it is opaque (i.e. -e for feminine or man). Paolieri et al.

(۲۰۱۰, ۲۰۱۱) reproduced this effect both in Italian and in another Romance language, Spanish, which has an analogous gender system. Paolieri et al. (2011) extended the previous finding to include differential effects when the morphological transparency of the terminal vowel varied by sex. For example, for the target word “trattore” (tractormasc), the gender congruence effect was stronger if the distractors had the same ending -e (e.B. “Peperone”, Peppermasc vs. “Scar”, Schalfem) as opposed to different endings (e.B. “cappello”, hatmasc vs. “batteria”, drum).

New findings show that in Romance languages such as Italian and Spanish, the choice of grammatical gender is not circumvented and that the grammatical effect of gender is related to gender transparency until the end (Paolieri et al., 2011). Gender is considered an inherent quality of names and influences the forms of other related words, a process called “agreement.” Names can be seen as the “trigger” of the process, while other words will be the “goal” of these changes. [11] The children were tested using systematically varied sentences depending on three factors: (i) gender class/noun declination (1st male declination vs. 2nd female declension); (ii) the presence of a gender match marker on the verb (examples (4), (5a–b)); and (iii) the presence of an adjective (5a–b, 6a–b). Thus, the overall design of the materials was 2×۲×۲. Barlow, M. (1991). The hierarchy of the chord and grammatical theory. In Sutton, L. A., Johnson, C., & R. Shields (eds.), Proceedings of the seventeenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society (pp.

۳۰-۴۰). Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistic Society. There are certain situations where assigning a gender to a noun, pronoun, or phrase may not be easy. These include, in particular: This phenomenon is very popular in Slavic languages: for example, Polish kreatura (depreciation “creature”) is female, but can be used to refer to both male (male sex), female (female sex), child (neutral sex) or even animate names (e.B. a dog is male). The situation is similar with other pejorative names such as pierdoła, ciapa, łamaga, łajza, niezdara (“wuss, klutz”); niemowa (“mute”) can be used obsolete, as described earlier, and can then be used for verbs marked for both male and female sex. In some languages, all sex markers have been eroded over time (perhaps by deflection) in such a way that they are no longer recognizable. Many German names, for example, do not indicate their gender by their meaning or form. In such cases, the gender of a name simply needs to be memorized, and the gender can be considered an integral part of any name if it is considered an entry in the speaker`s lexicon. (This is reflected in dictionaries, which usually indicate the gender of nominal keywords, if any.) Sometimes the gender of a noun can switch between the plural and the singular, as with the French words love, delight and organ as a musical instrument, which are all masculine in the singular, feminine in the plural.

These anomalies may have a historical explanation (love was also feminine in the singular) or result from slightly different terms (organ in the singular is usually a barbaric organ, while pluralorgues usually refer to the collection of columns in a church organ) [controversial – discuss]. Other examples are the Italian words uovo (“egg”) and braccio (“arm”). These are male in the singular, but form the irregular plurals uova and braccia, which have the endings of the feminine singular but have a correspondence to the feminine plural. (This is related to the forms of the second declension of the Latin neutral nouns from which they are derived: ovum and bracchium, with the nominative plurals ova and bracchia.) In other cases, the anomaly can be explained by the form of the name, as is the case in Scottish Gaelic. .